A masonry heater (also called a masonry stove) is a device for warming an interior space through radiant heating, by capturing the heat from periodic burning of fuel (usually wood), and then radiating the heat at a fairly constant temperature for a long period. Masonry heaters covered in tile are called cocklestoves (also tile stoves or ceramic stoves). The technology has existed in different forms, from back into the Neoglacial and Neolithic periods.
Blacksmiths work by heating pieces of wrought iron or steel until the metal becomes soft enough for shaping with hand tools, such as a hammer, an anvil and a chisel. Heating generally takes place in a forge fueled by propane, natural gas, coal, charcoal, coke, or oil. Some modern blacksmiths may also employ an oxyacetylene or similar blowtorch for more localized heating. Induction heating methods are gaining popularity among modern blacksmiths.
Stained glass, in the arts, the coloured glass used for making decorative windows and other objects through which light passes. Strictly speaking, all coloured glass is “stained,” or coloured by the addition of various metallic oxides while it is in a molten state. Nevertheless, the term stained glass has come to refer primarily to the glass employed in making ornamental or pictorial windows.
Historians believe that the first log buildings (ristpalkmaja) in the Estonian region were built at least 2000 years ago and presume that Estonians learned their building skills from the Baltic tribes; the Estonian words for axe (kirves) and wall (sein) originate in Baltic languages rather than in the dominant Finno-Ugric. In vernacular peasant architecture, both dwelling houses and outbuildings typically were built of round logs until the middle of the 19th century, while hewn logs were used for manors and public houses.
Brick masonry is a highly durable form of construction. It is built by placing bricks in mortar in a systematic manner to construct solid mass that withstand exerted loads. There are several types of bricks and number of mortars which can be used to construct brick masonry.Since the bulk of the vegetation stays dry and is densely packed—trapping air—thatching also functions as insulation. The mud is used to fill up various joints brick masonry work. Thickness of the mortar joint is 12 mm. It is the cheapest type of brick masonry.
Azulejos are found on the interior and exterior of churches, palaces, ordinary houses, schools, and nowadays, restaurants, bars and even railways or subway stations. They were not only used as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity like temperature control in homes. There is also a tradition of their production in former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in North America, South America, Goa, Lusophone Africa, East Timor and the Philippines.
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm branches, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. Since the bulk of the vegetation stays dry and is densely packed—trapping air—thatching also functions as insulation. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. Thatch is still employed by builders in developing countries, usually with low-cost local vegetation.